Saturday, August 22, 2020

Pepsi Company free essay sample

Its brands incorporate Quaker Oats, Tropicana, Gatorade, Lays and Pepsi? â€? are commonly recognized names that represent quality all through the world. As a worldwide organization, they additionally have solid provincial brands, for example, Walkers, Gamesa and Sabritas. Autonomously or through agreement makers, the two of them make market and sell an assortment of helpful, pleasant and healthy nourishments and drinks in over 200â countries. Their portfolio incorporates oat, rice and grain-based nourishments, just as carbonated and non-carbonated refreshments. The biggest activities of PepsiCo are in North America (United States and Canada), Mexico, Russia and the United Kingdom. Notwithstanding, this paper investigation PepsiCo inside and remotely utilizing various lattices and approaches other than it distinguishes what PepsiCo follows in their business lastly this paper executes and assesses the systems that were defined from SOWT,BCG,SPACE,SFE and IE and end with our examination of PepsiCo methodology in contending universally. Stage One I. Foundation PepsiCo Company is making a great deal of things like lime water and new beverages and nuts, it was created by Caleb Bradham of New Bern, North Carolina was a drug specialist in 1893. We will compose a custom paper test on Pepsi Company or on the other hand any comparative subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page In the same way as other drug specialists when the new century rolled over, he had a soft drink wellspring in his drugstore, where he served his clients reviving beverages, that he made himself. His most mainstream refreshment was something he called Brads drink made of carbonated water, sugar, vanilla, uncommon oils, and Pepsin and cola nuts. Following seventeen years of progress, and in 1910 Caleb Bradham lost Pepsi Cola. He had bet on the changes of sugar costs during W. W. I, accepting that sugar costs would keep on rising however they fell rather leaving Caleb Bradham with an overrated sugar stock. Pepsi Cola failed in 1923. What's more, Came back following multi year in1928, Megargel rearranges his organization as the National Pepsi-Cola Company, turning into the fourth parent organization to possess the Pepsi trademark, and in1931 Megargel revamps went bankrupted and it was the second chapter 11 in Pepsi Company history. In 1931, the Loft Candy Company Loft president, Charles G. Guth who reformulated the famous soda, purchased Pepsi Cola. Guth battled to make an achievement of Pepsi and even offered to offer Pepsi to the Coca-Cola Company, who wouldn't offer an offer. In 1932 it was presented in Argentina, and 1934 Pepsi starts selling a 12-ounce bottle for five pennies, a similar cost charged by its rivals for six ounces, and in1934 it was presented in the Soviet Union, in 1940 Pepsi makes promoting history when it makes the principal publicizing jingle communicate across the nation, as Nickel, Nickel turned into a hit record and been meant 55 language, and in 1964 Pepsi diet is presented in Pepsi publicizing and in 1966 Pepsi diet has its own promoting as it was taking to the client about the low calorie cola. There are numerous contenders the market like Coca-Cola, Birel; they have more than 185,000 representatives working in 200countries. I. Nibble food Market Dominance Many of PepsiCo’s different items kept on commanding their business sectors during the 1990s. Deals of Frito-Lay items represented around 40 percent of PepsiCo’s complete benefits. By the mid-1990s Frito-Lay items made up the greater part of the U. S. showcase for nibble chips, and the organization claimed eight of the best ten chip brands. In 1995 U. S. shoppers purchased the company’s unique potato chip brand, Lay’s, at a pace of 4. kg (10 lb) a second. The company’s driving item, Dorito’s tortilla chips, was the top of the line salty bite (bundled) food in America in the mid-1990s. Salty nibble nourishments incorporate chips, pretzels, and nuts, instead of nonsalty nibble nourishments, for example, treats and cakes. In 1994 Frito-Lay started creating a few prepared and low-fat forms of a portion of their nibble foodsâ€such as Baked Lays potato chips and Baked Tostitos tortilla chipsâ€which before long overwhelmed the company’s deals development. ii. Ongoing Developments By the mid-1990s, PepsiCo’s eatery business comprised of 28,000 outlets around the world, more than were claimed by some other organization. The organization additionally provided its own eateries through a different division, PepsiCo Food Systems (PFS). In 1997, PepsiCo sold PFS. What's more, that year, PepsiCo spun off its café networks to shape another organization. The move empowered PepsiCo to concentrate on its refreshments and nibble nourishments. In 2001, PepsiCo gained The Quaker Oats Company, a food and Beverage Company. iii. Rivalry Since this exploration is about PepsiCo sodas, I. e. everages industry in Egypt the fundamental contenders work in an exceptionally serious condition, for example, Coca-Cola Company, Schweppes and Dr Pepper. There is likewise critical rivalry from private name contenders. In 1994, Coca-Cola refreshments held 25% of the soda piece of the overall industry. Coca-Cola and Pepsi were resolved to recover their piece of the overall industry an d were participating in value wars. They marked down their cost as much as 25%, which put coca cola in a troublesome position. It is additionally unsafe for Coca-Cola to participate in such exercises since they might diminish their complete deals income. It is significant for Coca-Cola to keep up a sound piece of the pie in light of the level idea of the soda showcase. Development in this industry originates from expanding your piece of the pie. Coca-Cola was first sold at the soft drink wellspring in Quite a while Pharmacy in Atlanta. During the primary year, deals of Coca-Cola found the middle value of nine beverages per day, signifying absolute deals for that time of $50. Today, results of The Coca-Cola Company are devoured at the pace of more than one billion beverages for every day in more than 200 nations. In 1993, Coca-Cola was losing piece of the overall industry to the less expensive private name firms, however responded rapidly with another showcasing program, new advancements and bundling in 1994. The extreme rivalry brings about descending weights on the cost. Dr Pepper, the most seasoned major soda in America, proceeds with its 125th Anniversary festivity with the arrival of Dr Pepper made with genuine sugar in six collectible jars, propelled by the cherished brand’s rich history. Customers can appreciate the 23 kinds of Dr Pepper in this new bundling start toward the beginning of July through early September. Notwithstanding, in part two a point by point examination of PepsiCo rivals in such lattices, models and charts like watchmen model, vital gatherings and Completive profile grid (CPM). * David, F. , Ali, A. amp; Al-Aali, A. (2011). Key Management: Concepts and Cases, Arab World ed. PP. 22-32: Pearson Education constrained. ISBN: 978-1-4082-5567-4 * Coca-Cola. (2010). Yearly Report. * 2012. PepsiCo. recovered from http://download-reports. blogspot. com/2011/08/complete quality-administration benchmarking. html * 2012. Dr Pepper. Recovered from http://www. rpeppersnapple. com. Pepsi Company has a great deal of Products Such As I. Carbonated Soft Drinks For Example : Miranda Orange, Miranda †Strawberry, Mountain Dew, Mountain Dew Voltage, Pepsi, Pepsi MAX, Pepsi Wild Cherry, Mug Cream Soda, Tropicana Twister Soda. II. Caffeinated Drinks For Example : AMP Energy, AMP Energy †Elevate, AMP Energy †Lightning, AMP Energy †Overdrive. III. Organic product Flavored Beverages For Example : SoBe Energize Mango Melon, SoBe Energize Power Fruit Punch, And SoBe Energize Citrus Energy. IV. Juice amp; Juice Drinks For Example : V. Give in addition to †Apple, Dole Plus Fruit Punch, Lipton Brisk Fruit Punch, Lipton Brisk Lemonade, Ocean Spray Apple Juice, Ocean Spray Blueberry Juice Cocktail, Tropicana Orangeade. VI. Sports Drinks For Example : Gatorade Prime †Berry, Gatorade Prime Fruit Punch, Gatorade Cool Blue, G2 †Grape, G2 †Orange. VII. Waters For Example : Aquafina, Aquafina Flavor Splash †Grape, Propel Zero †Berry; Propel Zero Black Cherry, SoBe Lifewater Orange Tangerine, SoBe Lifewater Strawberry Kiwi. * PepsiCo. (2011). Yearly Report: the intensity of PepsiCo : Sandy Alexander Inc. www. pepsico. com * 2012. PepsiCo. etrieved from http://www. pepsico. com/Brands. html PepsiCo thinks being a mindful corporate resident isn't just the Right Thing to do, yet the Right Thing to accomplish for PepsiCos business. II. PepsiCos Vision PepsiCos obligation is to persistently improve all parts of the world wherein we work - condition, social, monetary making a superior tomorrow than to day. PepsiCos vision is placed vigorously through projects and an attention on natural stewardship, exercises to profit society, and a promise to assemble investor esteem by making PepsiCo a really manageable organization. Vision Statement Evaluation According to the business vision and crucial which is from David, Ali amp; Al-Aali (2011), the vision is characterized as straightforward joined words communicates Companys future with no a particular time span. Notwithstanding, PepsiCos current vision has most likely that it is acceptable and satisfactory other than it isn't related with time period in an enthusiastic manner other than numerous reasons push PepsiCo to have vision, for example, the compelling presentation of PepsiCo inside nature across North America to Middle East by expanding attention to basic issues in each general public. This program is called Performance with Purpose. * David, F. , Ali, A. amp; Al-Aali, A. (2011). Key Management: Concepts and Cases, Arab World ed. PP. 22-32: Pearson Education restricted. ISBN: 978-1-4082-5567-4. * 2012. PepsiCo. Recovered from http://download-reports. blogspot. com/2011/08/absolute quality-administration benchmarking. html III. PepsiCo Mission Statement PepsiCos mission is to be the universes chief customer Products Company concentrated on helpful nourishments and drinks. We look to deliver money related compensations to speculators as we give openings fo

Friday, August 21, 2020

Essay --

Conception prevention Anti-conception medication is broadly utilized the world over by numerous ladies to forestall pregnancy. There are numerous approaches to gain birth power from getting them at your nearby drugstores or acquiring a medicine from a doctor of facility. I visited my nearby Planned Parenthood facility in Mission Viejo to get data on the different approaches to forestall pregnancy. Arranged Parenthood is the main sexual and regenerative human services facility in the United States. They are found everywhere throughout the nation where ladies can go to get instructed and remain sound. I read leaflets they had shown and furthermore visited their site to get familiar with the various ways ladies can forestall pregnancy. Withdrawal (Pull out strategy) A. Cost-This doesn't cost anything, you simply need instruction and experience to utilize this strategy effectively. B. Effectiveness-Of each 100 ladies whose partner’s withdrawal, 4 will become pregnant whenever done effectively. C. Availability-Anyone can endeavor or accomplish this bust must have understanding and trust with your accomplice. D. How to acquire this prophylactic N/A E. Teaching-A man must know when they are going to arrive at the purpose of discharge and pull out at the specific perfect time. F. Medical Conditions that deny use-N/A G. Precautions-This strategy ought not be utilized for men who discharge rashly, or on the off chance that they don't have the foggiest idea who to pull out accurately. H. Religious, social or contributing components N/A Richness Awareness (Rhythm) A. Cost-Does not cost anything, just instruction and comprehend of the woman’s richness cycle. B. Effectiveness-How well this strategy functions relies upon the two accomplices, and must be done effectively and reliably. 24 out of 100 couples who use ripeness mindfulness will have a pregnancy if not done corr... ...u are younger than 18, your state may require either of your folks to give authorization or to be recounted the choice before the premature birth. E. Instructing You may have a wide scope of feelings after a premature birth. Premature birth starts another cycle and you ought to have a typical period in 4 to about two months. F. Ailments N/A G. Precautionary measures Some individuals may have inconveniences from being under sedation. You may likewise have overwhelming draining an inconvenience. H. Strict, social or contributing elements Abortion is an exceptionally dubious subject. There are numerous gatherings who call themselves master decision and star life. Expert decision accept that ladies reserve a privilege to pick whether they need to be pregnant or not and star life trusts you ought to never have premature birth in light of the fact that the baby is a living. It will keep on being a major discussion around the globe.

SUNY Application Tips How to Apply, Deadlines, and More

SUNY Application Tips How to Apply, Deadlines, and that's just the beginning SAT/ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The State University of New York arrangement of schools usually known as SUNY-includes somewhere in the range of 64 distinctive grounds all through New York. These grounds incorporate research colleges, junior colleges, and even explicit projects at different colleges like Cornell. Despite the fact that this implies understudies who need to go to SUNY schools have a lot of decisions, it additionally implies that the SUNY application can feel something like a labyrinth of choices. Which school do you need? Which application would it be a good idea for you to round out? Is it true that you are applying to one school or many? In the event that you’re considering going to one of these 64 schools and need help rounding out the SUNY application, this guide is here to help. We’ll be covering affirmations necessities, which schools require supplemental expositions, and some supportive data for rounding out your application. SUNY has such a significant number of grounds that there's most likely a couple in this image. In spite of having 64 distinctive grounds, the SUNY system’s application is genuinely direct. Most understudies who apply to schools in the framework use applySUNY, an exclusive application grew explicitly for SUNY. You can utilize applySUNY to apply to practically any school inside the SUNY framework. In any case, there are a couple of schools that require their own applications: Cornell University, College of Agriculture Life Sciences (Universal or Common Application) Cornell University, College of Human Ecology(Universal or Common Application) Cornell University, College of School of Industrial Labor Relations(Universal or Common Application) Cornell University, College of College of Veterinary Medicine(Universal or Common Application) Downstate Medical University (Apply Yourself Application) Domain State College (SUNY ESC Application) Wellbeing Sciences Center at Stony Brook University (Multiple Applications) Nassau Community College (Nassau Community College Application) School of Optometry (OptomCAS) Rockland County Community College (RCC Application) Suffolk County Community College (Suffolk County Community College Application) Westchester County Community College (Westchester Community College Application) On the off chance that you’re applying to any of those, be certain that you look into application cutoff times, desires, and other data ahead of time. Their necessities may contrast significantly from the applySUNY prerequisites, so begin early. Different schools acknowledge the Common Application notwithstanding applySUNY, allowing you a subsequent choice if you’re additionally applying to schools that aren’t in the SUNY framework: Buy College, SUNY SUNY Albany SUNY Alfred State College of Technology SUNY Binghamton University SUNY Buffalo State SUNY Cobleskill SUNY College at Brockport SUNY College at Geneseo SUNY College at Old Westbury SUNY College at Oneonta SUNY College of Environmental Science Forestry SUNY College of Technology at Canton SUNY Cortland SUNY Delhi SUNY Farmingdale State College SUNY Fredonia SUNY Maritime College SUNY Morrisville State College SUNY New Paltz SUNY Oswego SUNY Plattsburgh SUNY Polytechnic Institute SUNY Potsdam SUNY Stony Brook University SUNY University at Buffalo Watch out for cutoff times to ensure you're generally on track! When Is the SUNY Application Due? Since you know which application you’ll be rounding out, it’s time to get into coordinations. The applySUNY application is accessible on the web and in a paper variant. Electronic applications are commonly quicker and simpler for the two understudies and universities, yet on the off chance that you have constrained web get to or different concerns, it’s absolutely fine to present a paper application. Notwithstanding which one you pick, be certain that you incorporate all necessary material! The SUNY framework is to some degree atypical in that there is no official cutoff time for general applications; they’re acknowledged on a moving premise up to a program has openings. In any case, applications will close when a program is full, so the sooner you can apply, the better. It’s constantly shrewd to twofold check the site of the grounds you’re applying to. What's more, however there is no official cutoff time, SUNY still suggests that you get your application in by December 1. For understudies applying Early Decision, application dates fluctuate. Early Decision understudies applying to the NYS College of Ceramics at Alfred University or Maritime have a cutoff time of November 1, while understudies applying to Geneseo have a cutoff time of November 15, and ESF understudies have a cutoff time of December 1. For Early Action, a non-restricting early application, understudies wanting to go to Albany or Binghamton ought to apply by November 1. Oswego hopefuls ought to apply by December 1. All other Early Action applications must be gotten by November 15. For all Early Action understudies, the cutoff time to finish their enlistment choice is May 1. Passing marks will make your application a sure thing. What Test Scores and GPA Do You Need for SUNY Schools? The assortment of schools inside the SUNY framework implies that there’s no immovable GPA and grades rules for the whole framework. Reach skyward and make a solid effort to get the most ideal score, yet in the event that you’re hoping to substance out your school list with some SUNY schools, these are the confirmations necessities: School GPA ACT SAT Acknowledgment Rate SUNY Adirondack n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY University at Albany 3.4 24 1095 54 percent New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University 3.03 23 1110 62.7% Alfred State College 3.04 22 1045 67.7% Binghamton University 3.7 29 1361 40.4% The College at Brockport 2.98 23 1095 53.2% SUNY Broome n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY University at Buffalo 3.6 26 1225 57.4% SUNY Buffalo State 3.15 20 970 60% SUNY Canton n/a 17 - 22 880 - 1100 82.6% Cayuga Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy Clinton Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Cobleskills 3.09 20 960 94.3% Columbia Greene Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy New York State College of Agriculture Life Sciences at Cornell University 4.05 33 1470 12.7% New York State College of Human Ecology at Cornell University 4.05 33 1470 12.7% New York State School of Industrial Labor Relations at Cornell University 4.05 33 1470 12.7% New York State College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University 4.05 33 1470 12.7% Corning Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Cortland 3.4 24 1125 47.9% SUNY Delhi n/a n/a n/a 51.3% SUNY Downstate Medical Center n/a n/a n/a 14% Dutchess Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Empire State College n/a n/a n/a 84% SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry 3.85 26 1237 52.2% SUNY Erie Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Farmingdale State College 3.24 21 1062 59% Design Institute of Technology 3.6 n/a n/a 47% Finger Lakes Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Fredonia 3.3 24 1150 64.9% Fulton-Montgomery Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Genesee Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Geneseo 3.66 27 1290 72.4% Herkimer County Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy Hudson Valley Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Jamestown Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Jefferson Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Maritime College 3.26 25 1178 69.4% Mowhawk Valley Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Monroe Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Morrisville State College n/a 17 - 22 850 - 1060 77.4% Nassau Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY New Paltz 3.6 25 1171 44.3% SUNY Niagara County Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy North Country Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY College at Old Westbury 3.1 21 1070 68.6% SUNY Oneonta 3.6 23 1115 59.5% Onondaga Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY College of Optometry n/a n/a n/a Obscure SUNY Orange County Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Oswego 3.5 24 1150 54.4% SUNY Plattsburgh 3.2 23 1121 52.9% SUNY Potsdam 3.31 21 1080 66.6% SUNY Purchase College 3.1 24 1150 43.5% SUNY Rockland Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Schenectady County Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy Stony Brook University 3.79 28 1304 42.2% Suffolk County Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Sullivan County Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy SUNY Polytechnic Institute n/a n/a n/a 62% Tompkins Cortland Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy Ulster County Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy Upstate Medical University n/a n/a n/a 34% SUNY Westchester Community College n/a n/a n/a Open Admissions Policy Hone your pencils for SUNY's exposition prerequisites. What Should You Know About SUNY Essays? Both the applySUNY application and the Common Application utilize similar prompts. You have seven options, with only one required paper of 250 to 650 words. In any case, a few universities require or acknowledge a supplemental article for green beans and trans

Wednesday, July 8, 2020

How Test Prep Works (and doesn’t work) A primer for mainland Chinese parents and students

There are three fundamental pillars to test preparation: The American education system and the Chinese education systems are structured in very different ways, and the standardized tests which are used to evaluate college applicants reflect those differences. If the Gaokao is a test (of memorized knowledge), then tests like the SAT and ACT are best labeled evaluations (of broad fundamental abilities). Accordingly, there is an upper limit to how much one can improve one’s score on U.S. standardized tests through typical Chinese academic study techniques such as memorization of vocabulary words. To score your best on American standardized tests, you may have to move away from study techniques you’ve used in the past. There are three fundamental pillars to test preparation: I. Instruction: learning fundamental reading techniques, grammar rules, standardized test formats, and strategies for beating the time limits. II. Test simulation: taking practice exams in a proctored setting. III. Follow-up: reviewing incorrect answers with a tutor; diagnosing and reinforcing weaknesses. Each of these steps is necessary and distinct, and all three work together. The most effective test prep plans will cycle through all three steps many times. For instance, one cycle would include instructing grammar on Wednesday, taking a practice test on Saturday, reviewing correct and incorrect grammar questions on Sunday. A successful student will conduct 4-8 cycles before sitting for an official test. It is not very effective to separate the steps (e.g. receiving instruction but skipping practice tests, or taking practice tests at home but not following up to understand incorrect questions). Contrary to popular opinion, taking lots of practice tests (åˆ ·Ã© ¢Ëœ) by itself has very low rate of effectiveness, because students cannot learn from their mistakes if they do not follow up with an instructor and analyze their faulty techniques. In my opinion, practice without follow-up is a waste of resources: many students quickly burn through practice tests, and then they have no more new resources available for accurate test simulation. How does this work in practice? Let’s consider a small-scale example, in which two students each spend an afternoon working on â€Å"Main Idea† questions within the Reading section of the ACT. Student A studies alone for 90 minutes, using the material from two practice tests. Student B works with a tutor for 90 minutes, using the material from one practice test. Student A reads through the text of two complete Reading tests (8 passages,) methodically identifying and answering each of the Main Idea questions along the way. She checks her answers and sees that she got about half of the 15 questions incorrect. She reviews the correct answers, re-reads the passages, and eventually sees how the correct answers are justifiable. However, she can still see how her initial, incorrect answers would be justifiable from another point of view! Because she lacks an outside expert to explain why certain answers are correct and incorrect, she has used up valuable official practice material and only gained marginal familiarity with the format of the test. The next time she goes through practice material, she will have little more understanding than she did the first time. Student B reads slowly through the text of a single passage, and her tutor watches carefully as she answers the related Main Idea questions. Out of two Main Idea questions, Student B answers one correctly and one incorrectly - and she’s uncertain why she got those results. The tutor then listens as the student explains her reading techniques, her thought process, her uncertainties, and her assumptions. The tutor then provides feedback on each step, carefully reviewing not only the answer choices and how to analyze each one but also the content of the passage and how to take effective notes on each paragraph. By the end of the lesson, Student B and her tutor have only covered 4 passages - but Student B’s understanding of why correct answers are correct and why incorrect answers are incorrect is much deeper than Student A’s understanding. The tutor assigns the second practice test for homework. By working alone, Student A lacked pillars I and III. In fact, Student A also didn’t really carry out step II correctly. Any improvements Student A undergoes are entirely dependent on her ability to reverse-engineer her own mistakes and teach herself techniques she does not know. On the other hand, Student B carried out pillars I and III during the 90 minute lesson, and was assigned pillar II in preparation for the next lesson. Student B will see steady improvement over time. Scheduling Tutoring to Achieve Your Best score I highly recommend students schedule 1-on-1 lessons early, often, and consistently, beginning 10-12 weeks before each official test. In my experience, cramming for the test at the last minute is much less effective than a long and consistent prep process - even if the total study times are comparable. In general, tutoring begun less than one month before the test date results in much lower score increases, and sometimes none at all – even if the student spends many hours practicing in the 2-3 weeks before the test. This is because American standardized tests evaluate fundamental abilities more than they evaluate memorized content. The fundamental abilities of grammar, reading, and writing require time to learn and time to practice. The most effective way to schedule your tutoring hours is to schedule 1 lesson each week, Even if you are receiving test-prep instruction in a classroom setting, I recommend scheduling tutoring throughout the test prep class. The classroom is far more efficient at delivering information (the first pillar) to multiple students and is certainly more affordable for the parent, but the classroom is not an efficient place for the individual student to receive follow-up diagnoses (the third pillar) from an instructor. Test prep should be scheduled so that the final lesson occurs within one week of the official test. This is because if a student prepares intensely several months before the test, but does not practice in the several weeks leading up to the test, the student will possibly forget his or her test-specific training. If the student prepares only in the month leading up to the test but not early on, the student will not have enough time to both learn and also practice the test-specific habits. ; Interested in learning more about how to prepare for the SAT or ACT? Plugging in Numbers: The Top Strategy for the Math Section of the SAT and ACT

Tuesday, June 30, 2020

Overview Of Goodyear Tire Rubber Company - Free Essay Example

The Goodyear Tire Rubber Company was founded in 1898 in a time that seemed especially remarkable, but the commencement was a bit eventful. Frank A. Seiberling who was 38 years at that time founded the company. He made a purchase of the companys first plant with a $3,500 down payment. The amount was money borrowed from a brother-in-law Lucius C. Miles. It was challenging with sourcing of raw materials especially the rubber and cotton which were the lifeblood of the industry and this had to be transported from halfway around the world, to a landlocked town that had only limited rail transportation. Even the man, from which the company was named, Charles Goodyear, had died penniless 30 years earlier despite his discovery of vulcanization after a long and courageous search. The bicycle craze of the 1890s was booming. This meant that demand for bicycles was soaring. The horseless carriage, as some ventured to call the automobile, was a wide-open challenge for bicycles. AT this same time the depression of 1893 was beginning to fade bringing about a recovery. On August 29, 1898, Goodyear was incorporated with a capital stock of $100,000. 4.1.1 Shareholding of commenced Goodyear David E. Hill, who purchased $30,000 of stock, became the first president. But it was the dynamic and visionary founder, hard-driving Seiberling, who chose the name and determined the distinctive trademark. The winged-foot trademark, inspired by a newel-post statuette of Mercury in the Seiberling home, has been altered over the years. Yet, it remains an integral part of the Goodyear signature, a symbolic link with the companys historic past. People like Seiberling, actually trying to liquidate family-owned property in 1898 when he ended up taking that once-in-a-lifetime chance to buy at a bargain the seven-acre tract that became Goodyear. People like George M. Stadelman, a man who avoided crowds and never made a speech, yet had a gift of integrity and foresight that guided Goodyears sales through a critical 20 years. People like Paul W. Litchfield, whose conviction and leadership helped inspire Goodyears development for nearly six decades. 4.1.2 First production of Goodyear With just 13 employees, Goodyear s production began on November 21, 1898, with a product line of bicycle and carriage tires, horseshoe pads and fitting the gamble Seiberling was making poker chips. The first recorded payroll amounted to $217.86 based on the prevailing wage of 13 to 25 cents an hour for a 10-hour day. After the first full month of business, sales amounted to $8,246. Since the first bicycle tire in 1898, Goodyear pedalled its way toward becoming the worlds largest tire company, a title it earned in 1916 when it adopted the slogan More people ride on Goodyear tires than on any other kind, becoming the worlds largest rubber company1926. 4.1.3 Goodyear in the 20th century Goodyear in the 20th century measures sales of nearly $20 billion, although it took 53 years before the company reached the first billion-dollar-year milestone. And it all began in a converted strawboard factory on the banks of the Little Cuyahoga River in East Akron, Ohio. Spanning the years, through all of those yesterdays, a legion of firsts and facts and figures appears that reflect the making of a company Goodyear is one of the worlds largest tire companies. It employs approximately 70,000 people and manufactures its products in 56 facilities in 21 countries around the world. Its two Innovation Centres in Akron, Ohio and Colmar-Berg, Luxembourg strive to develop state-of-the-art products and services that set the technology and performance standard for the industry. 4.2 OVERVIEW OF CURRENT STRATEGY OF GOODYEAR A close look at the strategies adopted by Goodyear over the past 2 to 5 years revealed some successes for the firm as they deployed some cost strategies, innovation and integrated marketing capabilities to leverage new product engines with outstanding marketing programmes to both trade and end users. They have done that with products such as Eagle GT, Assurance, Eagle F1 All season etc. The Capex of Good year in 2008 shows that there has been an increase in high value added (HVA) capacity. An increase of 50% by 2012 is the target set for Goodyear. Currently, the company has achieved 15% so far as at 2007). Strategy in 2008 Good year deployed the strategy below in 2008 Strengthened their balance sheet to capitalize on growth to improve their competitive position. Leveraged on favourable union contract Rebalanced their global footprint focussing on their supply chain. Goodyear as a result of competition has had to change its business model strategies employing th e following: Leadership Product Leadership Increased distribution Brand building Lower cost strategy Cash is king and not customer They have had to change their strategies as they realise that competition is eating into their slice of the market share. 4.2.1 Challenges facing Goodyear Emerging markets represent significant opportunity China now has the largest commercial vehicle market; 2nd largest car market is Russian tire market which will soon surpass German market size. Brazil is sustaining 5% GDP growth driving volume and transition to HVA. The challenge that lies ahead of Good year is to leverage their expertise in market development to fully deliver in emerging markets. Good year will need a highly innovative business strategy to create a global competitive advantage so as to continue a high market share in the rubber industry. 4.3 ANALYSIS OF DATA A qualitative quasi -deductive paradigm interview was conducted to allow for further clarity, completeness of results so as to overcome elements of bias typical of quantitative methodological approaches in order to examine particular events (Miles and Huberman, 1994). In doing this the researcher arranged an interview with five of their managers from five of their branches to verify if managers should be actively involved in the business evaluation strategy of an organization to enhance global competitive advantage. The outcome of the interview was then analyzed using the grounded theory (Straus) Five interviews were conducted with Business Unit Leaders of Goodyear in order to obtain a strategic perspective on the knowledge management requirements of the enterprise (Corbin,1990). The researcher chose this method as it is widely employed offering help in the analysis of qualitative data. The purpose of grounded theory is to build theory that is faithful to and which illuminates the area under investigation allowing us to collect information on the knowledge requirements of the enterprise. Grounded Theory is more interested in theory building than theory testing, which makes it eminently suitable for areas of research that have had little attention and exploration (Yin, 1993). Grounded Theory specifically calls for the evaluation of cases. Some of the advantages of using Grounded Theory for research of this nature are as follows (Bajaj, 1998): Grounded Theory can be used where no general theory about the phenomenon (knowledge audit) exists. The purpose is to arrive at prescriptions and policy recommendations with the theory likely to be intelligible to, and usable by, those in the situation being studied, and is often opened to comment and correction by them (Turner, 1981). Below are the questions and responses broken down in headings: Resulting from this process, a specification was drawn up describing the priority knowledge management requirements of Goody ear. This specification was then assessed against key components of the firms information technology infrastructure, and gap areas identified. On the basis of these gaps, an integrated solution was proposed, and the content to be delivered by this solution was defined. The functional requirements, architecture and operation of an integrated solution were discussed. 4.3.1 INTERVIEW A. 13th December, 2010 What has contributed to the success of Goodyear since the 1990s 6 of the interviewees mentioned branding with increasing levels from 25% in 1970`s to 60% in 1990`s. With 9 mentioning the management of knowledge leading to innovation in types of tires which also saw rising levels of 32% in 1970`s to 80% in 1990`s while the remaining 5 indicated that the success has been due to information technology increasing from 18% to 68%. It can be deduced from the above that branding, knowledge management and information technology has contributed to the success of Goodyear and rightly so as these three in additions to other factors are mentioned in the success stories of some organizations. According to Ambler (1997), a successful brand provides an organization with profits and the potential to gain future profits, thereby creating an asset that has value. Knowledge on the other hand is an advantage competitively. It is well harnessed if it is linked with information technology. This is because information technology enhances the collection, mining and making sense out of data/knowledge to achieve a competitive advantage. Knowledge is very important for innovation regardless of how it is collected, analyzed and distributed. According to Hargadon and Sutton(2000) in their description of a knowledge brokering cycle good ideas are captured through scanning, exploration for new possibilities, these ideas are kept alive through their distribution, old ideas are brought back to life a new uses are found for them, and eventually these ideas are validated for its commercial use or potential. Do you think managers should be actively involved in the business evaluation strategy of an organization to enhance a global competitive advantage? Ohmae (1982) and Porter (1985) suggested that the survival of a business is impossible without a competitive strategy and that the actual strategy must be unique to the organization. It is against the backdrop that the 20 managers interviewed who for reasons of choice decided to be anonymous in the declaration of findings of this research. All the managers interviewed affirmed that they must be involved in crafting strategy (ies) indicating 100% support of this assertion. In support of Mintzberg (1994), they suggested that the following will be achieved if managers did the implementation. Manage stability- Managers must be implementing strategies of the organization and not planning them. Managers can detect discontinuity-Managers involved in implementation will be able to detect discontinuity from strategies set even though environments do not change regularly. Even the smallest of change effects not detected earlier can pose significant damages in the long term. Recon ciling change and continuity-crafting strategy requires a natural reflection of the future, present and past. Too much focus on change can be damaging. What strategic business evaluation model should be employed for business/ environmental analysis? Environmental scanning- ideas come from a plethora of sources and are often triggered off by external changes in the environment. No organization is exempt from the need to innovate. SWOT analysis-a deliberate move into defining our strengths and weaknesses as an organization vis-ÃÆ'Â  -vis our opportunities and threats is another business evaluation model to be used. With comparison to PESTEL, 5 FORCES, and ANSOFF MATRIX, SWOT analysis appeared as the most preferred and employed model for business analysis 13 of these interviewees representing 65% supported the use of SWOT analysis, but 4 of them mentioned 5 FORCES indicating 25%, while as the remaining 2 (10%) said PESTEL with Ansoff matrix no a preferred choice. It is not strange that respondents mentioned the SWOT, 5Forces and PESTEL as models to be employed for strategic evaluation. The SWOT serves as an introspection of Goodyear mirrored against the opportunities and threats in the external environment of the fi rm. It is the SWOT that feeds into the 5 Force as Goodyear can know its strengths in upping standards for new entrants coming in to the tire and rubber industry, or its strengths to combat switching of clients to competitive brands such as Pirelli, Bridgestone firestone etc. Who is responsible for innovation in Goodyear? Leadership is responsible for creating an organizations vision together with the right climate for creativity. This right climate will spark off creativity that will help achieve vision. It is only when the right climate is created that creativity and innovation will become a reality in Goodyear. So in answering the question, all in the organization must be responsible for innovation but the right leadership put in place will help complete the process for innovation in Goodyear. Gathering of information from different sources was aimed primarily at identifying the knowledge that the correspondents strongly perceive as things being of increasing value to the company and its performance. In order to institute the knowledge or strategy management requirement of the company, two forms of data gathered were under taken: Twenty of the top senior-most managers were interviewed in the various branches of Goodyear in order to obtain their perspective about the business evaluation stra tegy requirements considered to be highly innovative and effective in creating an advantage for them globally. Fifty five representatives of the various business divisions responded to questionnaire in order to understanding the operational requirement or strategy of each entity. Resulting from this process, a specification was drawn up describing the priority (rating) of the strategies (knowledge requirement) of the firm. This specification was then assessed against key components of the firms infrastructure and gap areas identified. On the basis of these gaps, solution was proposed. Once the interview was completed, a pattern and area of divergence were identified amongst the respondents. This was achieved by transferring portions of individual transcripts from senior managers interviewed into a shared spreadsheet under specific headings as identified during the process of analysis. Once this was done, areas of commonality were found. 4.3.2 An info-centric organization The interview with senior managers provided sufficient indicator of importance of knowledge management in the market place. Many businesses spend all their time and effort to create competitive advantage through either cost-cutting, quality-enhancement, speed of delivery or continuous expansion of market reach. However, according to the senior managers, one of the most effective weapons every business can deploy in the competitive market place is to create an info-centric organization. It is their objective to make it a standard practice for everyone in the firm to be on the look-out for important information that can benefit the company. In order to realize any significant benefit from implementing the info-centric plan, leadership must ensure that at general or strategic meetings, reserve the loudest applause for the person with the biggest scoop of information provided for improvement. They should create a contest that offers attractive rewards for the person with the best idea to raise sales by say 25% in the coming year. An info-centric firm will be customer-centered and will therefore look at the customer first for the critical information needed to improve. Talk to the client regularly both informally and also through questionnaire and surveys. The client is the North-Star of the firms compass and everything ultimately focuses on pleasing and satisfying the client. 4.3 3 A culture of continuous process improvement Commitment to continuous process improvement is extremely positive. Senior managers believed that the business must never get satisfied with their status or progress in the critical areas of their operation. They recognize that in a fast-changing world, rapid improvement is required to remain competitive. For the plan to materialize, they therefore will consistently acquire and apply relevant information to improve upon their business processes. It is common practice for them to have focus groups or quality circles with the main purpose of achieving specific reductions in lead time, cost, queues, clients complaints, etc. the firm should continuously seek to achieve improvements in the various points on the value chain. They should focus on suppliers, raw materials, marketing and sales, order processing, production operations, finance and administration. Once the feedback from the responses to the questionnaires by the employees had been analyzed, it became obvious that there were content needs that were common across all the divisions. The specific content required by employees is identified below. The knowledge levels (strategy) are grouped into four main subjects as follows: Knowledge about leadership and capabilities expressed across the firm Knowledge about marketing approach of the firm across the industry. Knowledge about speed and pricing conditions among competitors in the industry Knowledge about the business opportunities within the company with regards to contact relationship management. Based on the above mentioned key knowledge areas, the respondents were asked to identify and rate specific content within each of the above context, according to its importance in terms of enabling them to add value to their performance and also enhance their competitive advantage in the industry. Table 1. Knowledge condition: Leadership and Capabilities Content Specification Rating Trust systems Formally communicating the firms mission statement and philosophy that give basic values, purpose, direction and the desired level of performance. Low Periphery systems Organizational members activities fall within the acceptable domain of activity. That is, systems ensure that business activities occur in defined product market at acceptable level of risk. Medium Capability and solution Establishing terminology used to express and illustrate product and service offering. Demonstrating competence and aptitude to supervise subordinates. Medium Knowledge sharing Gathering, absorbing, transferring product/service information between organization and customers, third parties (suppliers) and employees in order to meet companys goals. High Prompt recognition Encourages and promote corporate intelligence to bring out innovation in the organization. What gets rewarded gets done; the behaviours you reward gets replicated High Table 2. Knowledge condition: Marketing approach Content Specification Rating Market opportunity The market size with respect to demographics and psychographics High Market KPIs The key industrial trends that are fuelling the companys success or trends inhibiting its success High Packaging creating a unique identity (brand) to capture market attention and hold their glaze and for that matter raising the companys value High Market segmentation The names of targeted market segmentations and its distinctiveness High Clients motivation Customers primary reason for purchasing or wanting to use the companys product or service Medium Feedback Customers testimonials and endorsement in the form of correspondents from happy or unhappy users. Media coverage and celebrity endorsement High Table 3. Knowledge Condition: Speed and Pricing Condition Content Specification Rating Delivery Ability to complete work faster (promptly responding to client-related demands and issues High Surprise element Keeping competitors continually questing about what the company will do next. For instance consistently giving added value through extra services offered as part of a holistic package. High Financial analysis Covers a complete thorough financial justification for company operation including return on investments, degree of risk and potential exposure of the organization Medium pricing competitiveness exploration of ways in making pricing more competitive in order to guarantee longer of your relationship with the customer Medium Pricing tradeoffs Customers expectation (decision) in making tradeoffs of price or value or both price and value. High Table 4 knowledge condition: relationship management Content Specification Rating Company profile a Name and contact details, websites and logos, vision and mission statements High Abstract of companys business status Companys core business actions, industry focal point and insight Medium Solution oriented Detailed action plan and relevant methodology. High Product/service requirement Adequately fulfilling its purpose, easy to use, meet quality requirement and worth it value. High Environmental sensors Pleasantry of working place i.e. what client see, smell, touches, hears at the site or our community works Medium Behaviour factors Customers interaction with employees High Catalogue and contacts of clients Names, contact details of segmented clients Low Activity tracking concern Emails, text messages in response to clients request and demand Medium 4.4 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATA 4.4.1 Interview with staff of Goodyear The researcher conducted an interview with 50 staff of Goodyear, 15 of its focus group at their main research centers and came out with the following: When staffs were asked of the departments they represented in Goodyear, 4 represented 20% were from finance department, 4 representing 20% were from marketing, another 4 representing 20% stated that there are factory hands and 8 representing 40% were in the research center. Table 1 represents the above-mentioned data from staff of departments that responded to the questionnaire. Table 5: Type of Business or work engaged by customers Responses Frequency Percentages Staff from research center 8 40% Marketing 4 20% Finance 4 20% Factory hands 4 20% Total 20 100% Source; Field Work, 2010 4.4.2 Perception of staff about products manufactured by Goodyear Respondents were asked about their perception of the products manufactured by Goodyear; they respond 90% representing 18 staff stated that there were excited about the current portfolio/ product line of Goodyear because it provided them with a formal way of segmentation and reduced their risk of loss of market share to competitors. Two staff representing 10% on the other hand stated that there are not satisfied with all the products manufactured by Goodyear, because their tires were not different from that of competition e.g. Semperit, Pirelli, Uniroyal etc. Table 2 below shows the percentage and frequency table of the perception of staff about products manufactured by Goodyear. Table 6: Perception of staff about products manufactured by Goodyear Responses Frequency Percentages Yes 18 90% No 2 10% Total 20 100% Source; Field Work, 2010 4.4.3 The Products/Services Offered to Customers Interviewed in focus groups I took the opportunity to interview a focus group of Goodyear about the products of Goodyear. The figure below shows the product/service offered to customers interviewed for the study. The products/services offered were categorized into Passenger vehicle tires; Commercial vehicle tire, Off road tires, ATV tires, RV tires, Racing tires. These categorizations were made from the data collected from the interview and also to aid easy analysis and interpretation of the data gathered. From the interview, 3 respondents representing 15% of customers stated that they had tried passenger vehicle tires; another 3 respondents representing 15% stated that they had also tried the Commercial vehicle, 6 customers representing 30% also stated that they had tried RV and similar tires of competitors and that of Goodyear and realized there was no difference. None responded on products such as ATV and Aviation tires. Figure 1: The Products/Services Offered to Customers Interviewed Source; Field Work, 2010 4.4.4 Global competitive advantage When staffs were asked if they have ever attended a strategic session in their working lives, 80% representing 16 staff stated that they have ever done that. 20% representing 4 staff however stated that they have not. Among the 80% who stated that they have ever attended a strategic session, they were further asked if they learnt that strategy could give an organization a global competitive advantage. 75% representing 12 staff stated that they believed that a good strategy could go a long way to creating a global competitive advantage for a firm if the right environment is created for it. The rest of the 25% representing 4 staff stated that they were indifferent about strategy as firms they have worked for were not doing anything different from what firms` are doing now. Figure 2 A: Staff that had attended strategic sessions Source: Field Work, 2010 Figure 2B: Can a highly innovative strategy create competitive advantage? Source: Field Work, 2010 4.4.5 Perception of staff interviewed about the innovation procedure and requirements of Goodyear. Staff were asked about their perception about the innovation procedure and requirements of Goodyear, the data depicts that 13 staff representing 65% stated that the procedures and requirements were complicated and not favourable to them because for instance the issues about idea generation were being restricted to a research center making it very difficult for staff not part of the research center to participate. 7 staff representing 35% stated that the procedures and requirements are less complicated and favourable to them because they are able to scale all the challenges involved with filling up idea forms and forwarding them to the right department. Table 7: Perception of staff interviewed about the procedure and requirements of Goodyear for the development of new ideas. Responses Frequencies Percentage Very Complicated and not Favorable 13 65% Less Complicated and Favourable 7 35% Total 20 100% Source; Field Work, 2010 4.4.6 Junior staff (1-5years experience) Interviewed Junior staff(with 2years experience of Goodyear) were asked if they have been able to generate an idea since they joined, 20% representing 4 junior staff in the category mentioned stated that they have not, 40% representing 8 junior staff (with experience between 2 and 5years) stated that they have done that once . These respondents were mostly factory hands, civil servants and contractors. Another 40% representing 8 respondents (2-5years) stated that they have suggested ideas for the development of new tires for Goodyear since they joined the company. Table 8: Experience and ability to generate ideas for Goodyear Responses Frequencies Percentages Staff with 2 yrs experience 4 20% Staff with (2-5 yrs)exp 8 40% Staff with (2-5)yrs exp Suggested ideas for development. 8 40% Total 20 100% Source; Field Work, 2010 Perception of business unit leaders about the current innovation strategies of Goodyear The figure below shows the perception of business unit about the current innovation strategies of Goodyear. 55% representing 31 unit leaders/branch managers stated that the current innovation strategy is favorable because, with the 1/3 cash security of the amount of the loan applying for, a customer in a way has paid 1/3 of the loan applied for. Salaried workers think that is convenient and flexible. 45% of the respondents representing 9 respondents stated that the strategy is not favourable since it is very difficult to get staff workers to participate in the idea generation process of Goodyear. Figure 3: Perception of Business unit leaders Interviewed about the current innovation Strategy of Goodyear Source; Field Work, 2010 CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS For competitive advantage to be sustained it will be necessary for staff of Good year to be prepared both in attitudes and abilities so that they can meet the demands of customers in due time. Competitive advantage can come from better products in this case tires, customer perceptions, costs, competencies, assets, attitudes and relationships etc. A key issue is ensuring that it is sustained. It will sad on the part of Goodyear if staff lack the necessary competitive attitude in order to create growth and opportunities for the company. From the findings of the study, it can be deduced that managers should continue to show active participation in the business evaluation strategy of the organization to enhance a global competitive advantage. Three areas to focus on are Technology, Branding and Knowledge management leading to innovation.Technology, especially IT in product and process innovation, is emerging as a powerful facilitator of market innovation in both personal and busines s markets. For example, in rubber industry many firms now see flexibility of core product features as a major competitive weapon. A companys ability to offer features such as flexible prices depends on whether its computer systems have been designed so that they can be quickly adapted to serve new market segments. In the rubber industry, application of new technology provides new entrants with the opportunity of rethinking the entire value proposition offered to customers. While the offer provided to customers by old-established companies is often standardized, new entrants can use advanced computing technology to provide more accurately targeted offers. They can do so themselves or in conjunction with partners. A recent trend is towards knowledge management, whereby firms work together in networks to create electronic packages of value for clients. It is new technology which provides market champions with the means for redefining markets on an economically viable basis. Importan tly, skilful application of IT has reduced the advantages of scale and market share and so has diminished the cost advantages of large old-established firms. The Internet provides particularly exciting opportunities; especially for new entrant challengers, because these are not burdened by traditional forms of distribution such as retail branch premises. It is likely that nontraditional competitors with a mastery of IT, who are intent on building superior networks, will continue to make serious inroads into other tire markets. Specific customer segments identified by market champions are provided with access points at which relevant offers are negotiated. It is advanced technology which allows customers to be served simultaneously in two main modes the relationship mode, and the transaction mode. In the relationship mode an integrated profile of a customers financial needs is acted on over time; in the transaction mode supply at the lowest possible price is the aim. In times of f ast changing markets and fast changing technology, businesses which want to safeguard their future must innovate. If they want to be proactive and develop further by organic means they must engage not just in occasional bursts of innovation, but in continuous change. Three main types of innovation can be pursued for this purpose. First, market innovation improving the mix of markets and how these are served. Second, product Innovation improving the mix of offers. Third, process innovation improving the mix of internal operations. In order to achieve and maintain competitive success in todays turbulent marketplace, top management must spend at least as much time thinking about customers needs and how these might be met innovatively as thinking about internal operations. The assertion experience is becoming irrelevant and even dangerous is probably a deliberate exaggeration. But, to compete effectively in the future, a business needs to focus beyond the markets it serves present ly and to concern itself with market innovation and the total imaginable market. Aggressive suppliers from other industries are adopting this wider approach. Not to be surprised by new competitors, incumbent suppliers in all industries need to concern themselves with market innovation. All businesses need to understand the changing needs of their customers. They must develop accurately targeted offers quickly and cost-effectively. Market innovation can help guide this quest by combining product line management with market opportunity analysis. When market innovation is bold and imaginative it provides not just a means for developing new business, but a revolutionary means for safeguarding existing business. The following conclusions are also drawn from the analysis and discussion of data collected in Chapter Four of the study: Goodyear is currently offering passenger tires, vehicle tires, commercial vehicle tires, RV tires and aviation tires. The departments represented in the survey results are finance, marketing, factory hands, research centers, focus groups. Focus groups representing customers claimed they were satisfied with the services provided by the company. . Majority of customers patronised RV, passenger vehicle, commercial vehicle with none for ATV and aviation tires. Goodyear had in place two research centers where ideas were approved and processed. Staff attendance to strategic sessions where strategies were formulated are as follows: 80% of the staff representing 16 staff had attended strategic sessions. Among the 80% who stated they had attended strategic session , 75% believed that a good strategy could go a long way to create a global competitive advantage. The rest of the 25% were however indifferent. 75% of those interviewed believed that an innovative strategy can create competitive advantage . However, 65% representing 13 of the staff stated that the procedures and requirements for innovation were complicated making reference to innovation as a preserve of the research center and not the entire organization.7 staff representing 35% however stated that the processes were less cumbersome and favourable to them. 55% representing 31 unit leaders/branch managers stated that the current innovation strategy is favorable . 45% of the respondents representing 9 respondents stated that the strategy is not favourable since it is very difficult to get staff workers to participate in the idea generation process of Goodyear. Finally, some analysts have referred to market champions as innovative entrepreneurs (Ghoshal and Bartlett, 1988). However, it is one thing to spot potential market opportunities, but quite another to make money from these. Potentially, there are large numbers of market opportunities. A business cannot win in all the markets open to it. Skilful market champions fight for the development of markets which their business can supply and dominate in some way. Effective market championing involves spotting positions in which the business can build and retain competitive strength. There is no point in choosing an innovation strategy which the business lacks the means to pursue over ti me. Skilful market innovation helps to focus the competitive strategy of a business. Customer analysis, competitor analysis and supply competence analysis are its essential ingredients. Skilful market champions appreciate the specific ways in which different customers buy. They know that some customers will have a preference for certain types of offers, while other customers will have quite different preferences. This means that the same core product can and indeed, should be offered quite differently to different market segments, if the aim is to meet buyers preferences as closely as possible. 5.2 Recommendations From the above discussions of the data gathered and analyzed, the following recommendations are made from the conclusions drawn: Goodyear should implement a centralized approach in all its 55 branches Standard procedures should not be imposed on branches. This means that there will be an avoidance of mistakes on limits of innovative solutions and awarding moves which should not be missed. Understand the economic consequences of knowledge management practices in the enterprise Understand how knowledge management practices in the enterprise compare to those in competing enterprises Understand the role of knowledge management function in building enterprise capability for the future. The company should make it compulsory for every staff to suggest an idea that will help Goodyear introduce new processes or products that will keep them ahead of competition. This could be done by setting up an ideas portal which could be accessed by all in all branches. Good year sho uld also intensify its environmental education programme, to educate both its customers and potential customers about effective management of the environment. The company should also collaborate with NGOs, Charities to organize alternative ways of disposing rubber so that customers will desist from pulverizing rubber which can be of severe damage to the environment. The company should also make sure that every idea is carefully scrutinized and any approval given should be based on the innovation strategy for Goodyear. The idea should meet all requirements and procedures for approval. The company should also strive to increase its client base by making the public especially car manufacturers, distributors in the various markets in and around its area of operation aware of its products so as to increase its market share. The Headquarters should not set strict orders for all branches as the former will influence a branches ability to bring its resources into alignment with the changing environment. This could stifle innovation leading to de motivation in staff. The company should look again at the changing trend of managing knowledge more as these changes if not monitored could lead to some losses in the market share of God year by Pirelli, Continental AG etc. The company should also improve upon its social development programme so that it improves its image in its areas of operations. The company should demonstrate the willingness to suffer some loss of control, give more ownership to the branch managers in different country markets and link rewards to market performance but tie together more closely personal and corporate strategies. Management should allow their leadership styles to evolve in accordance with the changes in the workplace as the leadership style adopted at any point in time could impact on the linkages that the former has in encouraging innovation. There should be a regular strategic gathering of all senior managers from the 55 branches to review the companys evaluation strategies. The use of webcasting could be an ideal way to saving costs deploying the power of technology. The regular review of the strategies could help Goodyear adopt newer and modern strategies thus staying ahead of competition. Strategies should be examined on its merits of whether it is acceptable to Goodyears stakeholders, suitable for the company and feasible to achieve.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Formula for the Combined Gas Law

The combined gas law ties together Boyles law, Charles law, and Gay-Lussacs law. Basically, it states that as long as the amount of gas doesnt change, the ratio between the pressure-volume and temperature of a system is a constant. There is no discoverer of the law as it simply puts together concepts from other cases of the ideal gas law. The Combined Gas Law Formula The combined gas law examines the behavior of a constant amount of gas when pressure, volume and/or temperature is allowed to change. The simplest mathematical formula for the combined gas law is: k PV/T In words,  the product of pressure multiplied by volume and divided by temperature is a constant. However, the law is usually used to compare before/after conditions. The combined gas law is expressed as: PiVi/Ti PfVf/Tf where: Pi initial pressureVi initial volumeTi initial absolute temperaturePf final pressureVf final volumeTf final absolute temperature It is extremely important to remember that the temperatures are absolute temperatures measured in Kelvin, NOT  °C or  °F. It is also important to keep your units constant. Do not use pounds per square inch for pressures initially to find Pascals in the final solution. Uses of the Combined Gas Law The combined gas law has practical applications in situations where pressure, volume, or temperature can change. It is used in engineering, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and meteorology. For example, it can be used to predict cloud formation and the behavior of refrigerants in air conditioners and refrigerators.